The government of Gyeongbuk in Korea increased the financial input in the agricultural sector by 43% from 2008 through 2012. However, the productivity of the agricultural sector in Gyeongbuk rose only about 3.6% during the same period. This study evaluated the agricultural competitiveness of each city or county in Gyeongbuk using six evaluation indices (scale, productivity, finance input, location quotient, technical education, and total) and investigated the relationship between the indices and total values of agricultural productions. The results show that Sangju, Gyeongju, Andong, Uiseong, and Seongju have high competitiveness for the scale index. For the productivity index, Gimcheon, Mungyeong, Ulleung, Yeongju, and Seongju were highly evaluated. For the location quotient index, Yeongcheon, Uiseong, Cheongdo, Seongju, and Sangju have high competitiveness. Uiseong, Yeongdeok, Cheongsong, Gunwi, and Yeongyang were highly evaluated for the agricultural finance input index. For the agricultural technical education index, Chilgok, Sangju, Mungyeong, Uiseong, and Gyeongju have high competitiveness. Finally, Sangju, Euiseong, Yeongcheon, Gyeongju, and Andong were highly evaluated for the total competitive index, while Yeongdeok, Yeongyang, Goryeong, Uljin, and Cheongsong have a low competitiveness for the total competitive index. This study also found that out of five indices, scale, location quotient, and technical education indices have a positive and statistically significant effect on the total values of agricultural production. However, we did not find any statistically significant effect of the productivity and finance input indices on the total values of agricultural production. Hence, we can conclude that the government should focus their agricultural policy on scale, location quotient and education to improve total agricultural production.