There has been widespread warming and a general increase in summer temperatures over the Korean peninsula (0.5℃/ 10 years from 2001 to 2010). South Korea is transforming into a subtropical region, and the productivity of livestock is affected by the climatic changes. In this study, we investigated whether the summer heat waves affect the developmental competency of Korean native cattle (Hanwoo), a taurine type of cattle with a small portion of indicine varieties. We collected oocytes during the summer (heat stress, HS) and autumn (non –HS condition) and examined the developmental competencies including in vitro maturation and preimplantation embryo development. No significant differences were observed between the HS and non-HS oocytes in nuclear maturation (extrusion of the polar body); however, the cleavage and blastocyst rates were significantly lower in the HS group than those in the non-HS group. The lower developmental competence of the HS oocytes compared to the non-HS is, in part, due to insufficient cytoplasmic maturation because of a higher production of Reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels as well as peri/cortical distributed mitochondria in the HS oocytes after in vitro maturation. Next, we examined the ROS and mitochondria distribution and found a significant increase in the levels of ROS in the HS oocytes and a polarized distribution (pericortical cytoplasm) of mitochondria in the HS oocytes. In summary, impaired cytoplasmic maturation of oocytes from exposure to HS affects the preimplantation embryo development by dysfunction of mitochondria. To improve reproductive performance, embryo transfer using cryopreserved embryos/oocytes is recommended in the hot summer season of South Korea.